Nubian Aquifer AgreementMarch 5, 2022 1:33 pm
In addition to population, land share and percentages of volume, technology and dependence of countries are also important factors that need to be assessed. NSAS is not the only source of fresh water from which the four countries must draw, and population density varies in the aquifer. All of these countries have climatic climates that include the heat and drought of the Sahara. If there is no reliable source of fresh water, communities will not prosper and will choose to move to more appropriate areas. This has led water management and philosophers to ask the question: if people don`t live above or far nearby, do you estimate 10 miles from the source, is the country still entitled to the NSAS resource? Ten miles doesn`t seem far away for a vehicle. However, ten miles of infrastructure to transfer water that starts hundreds of feet below the surface can be extremely expensive to quench the thirst of small communities in the desert. When a government decides to invest in pumping and transfer infrastructure, the factors to consider are the radius of the population relative to the source and the appropriate size of these populations in which to invest; a hundred kilometers of pipe is needed for a hundred people or a thousand people. or more? It is important to involve and involve all riparian states in the future formulation of NSAS policies and institutions in research and management (short and long term). The state that will have the most difficulty in making a claim in the NSAS is Chad.
Chad has the least land above the aquifer, a small number of people (if any) dependent on the aquifer, and very little technological and economic feasibility to invest in a spring interconnection project. Chad is currently one of the poorest countries in a collectively developing African continent in terms of GDP. Although their situation is constraining at the moment, Chadians, especially on Lake Chad, may need a new reliable source in the next generation. The Sudan is similar to chad, but bears the burden of providing for more people; Nevertheless, Sudan has more opportunities to invest in connecting water resources. Egypt and Libya have the most to invest in projects involving NSAS. Egypt chooses not to use much of the NSAS, while Libya plans to have some of the largest daily groundwater withdrawals ever recorded. An integrated approach to water management by NSAS will promote sustainability and the equitable right to use the aquifer among all nations. It will also offer greater security against previously proposed threats, as opposed to four countries acting alone. Developed countries have been ingenious to the point where everyone can expect water to flow once the tap is turned on.
It`s a beautiful commodity that Americans take for granted every day. Water in any form is essential to life and the supply and resources in many other parts of the world are not so readily available. Population growth, technological progress and migration to densely populated areas are some of the factors that many developing countries are struggling to manage their water resources. The main question: how much readily available water is there and how long will it last? In the north-eastern sector of the African continent, the main problem could not be more obvious. This study will focus on the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), the largest known fossil aquifer currently available. NSAS underpins Libya, Sudan, Chad and Egypt. Currently, there is no cooperation agreement to regulate the use of the aquifer that removes this underground water basin in the middle of the desert. On 18 September 2013, the governments of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan formalized an agreement on the joint management of the common aquifer. The regional agreement (Strategic Action Programme) was signed at a signing ceremony at the 57th IAEA General Conference by H.E. Ali Mahamat Abdoulaye, Ministry of Rural and Urban Hydraulics, Chad, H.E. Eng. Ahmed Mostafa Emam, Minister of Electricity and Energy, Egypt, H.E.
Al Hadi Suleiman Henshir, Ministry of Water Resources, Libya and H.E.D. Tabita Potros Teia Shokai. Minister of State, Ministry of Water Resources and Electricity, Sudan and Prof. Seifeldin Hamad Abdalla, Technical Agency for Water Resources, Chairman of the new Joint Authority. Quantities to be extracted below the ceiling have immediate access as soon as the committee has received the request for appropriations, but not before that date. This information is important for scrap metal to adjust the total volumes extracted from aquifers. This volume limit of NSAS extractions is assigned with a vote of 7/12 and corresponds to the shared data and models used to predict the impact of the loss on groundwater levels. To exceed this ceiling, a request to the allocation committee relates to the volume to be extracted (i.e. millions of cubic metres per day), the use of quantities and other additional factors deemed necessary by the committee. In the Committee`s view, the lack of provision of sufficient information will not be taken into account in the award procedure. The Nubian sandstone-aquifer system is based on four riparian states: Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan.
The four countries all share the aquifer in that they have a percentage of the aquifer among their lands. This doctrine is appreciated by each riparian State as well as the sustainable and equitable right to use the aquifer. Algafar, M., Abdou, G., and Abdelsalam, Y., 2011. Groundwater flow model for the Nubian aquifer in the Khartoum region, Sudan. . . .